Zidovudine mechanism of action pdf Bowna

zidovudine mechanism of action pdf

retrovir iv infisopm ViiV Healthcare AZT, in full azidothymidine, also called zidovudine, drug used to delay development of AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) in patients infected with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus).

PRODUCT INFORMATION TRIUMEQ (dolutegravir abacavir and

RPA Newborn Care Drug Database Sydney Local Health District. Zidovudine tablets are contraindicated in patients who have had potentially life-threatening allergic reactions (e.g., anaphylaxis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome) to any of the components of the formulations., Mechanism of action. AZT in oral, injectable, and suppository form . AZT is a thymidine analogue. AZT works by selectively inhibiting HIV's reverse transcriptase, the enzyme that the virus uses to make a DNA copy of its RNA. Reverse transcription is necessary for production of HIV's double-stranded DNA, which would be subsequently integrated into the genetic material of the infected cell.

11/08/2011 · Mechanism of Action: Zidovudine is a synthetic nucleoside analogue. Intracellularly, zidovudine is phosphorylated to its active 5′-triphosphate metabolite, zidovudine triphosphate (ZDV-TP). The principal mode of action of ZDV-TP is inhibition of reverse transcriptase (RT) via DNA chain termination after incorporation of the nucleotide analogue. ZDV-TP is a weak inhibitor of the cellular … Zidovudine is a nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) that is widely used in the antiretroviral treatment of patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

Drug-Induced Hepatotoxicity: A Review Aashish Pandit, Tarun Sachdeva and Pallavi Bafna ABSTRACT Liver is the principle organ for maintaining the body’s internal environment. There is currently no way to reimburse for the absence of liver function. Its major influence is on the important cause of liver injury. More than 900 drugs, toxins, and herbs have been reported to cause liver injury Mechanism of Action . Dolutegravir inhibits HIV integrase by binding to the integrase active site and blocking the strand transfer step of retroviral deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) integration which is essential for the HIV replication cycle. Strand transfer biochemical assays using purified HIV1 - integrase and p-processed substrate DNA resulted in IC50 values of 2.7 nM and 12.6 re nM. In vitro

Lamivudine and zidovudine tablet is not recommended for patients with creatinine clearance less than 50 mL per min because lamivudine and zidovudine tablet is a fixed-dose combination and the dosage of the individual components cannot be adjusted. 11/08/2011 · Mechanism of Action: Zidovudine is a synthetic nucleoside analogue. Intracellularly, zidovudine is phosphorylated to its active 5′-triphosphate metabolite, zidovudine triphosphate (ZDV-TP). The principal mode of action of ZDV-TP is inhibition of reverse transcriptase (RT) via DNA chain termination after incorporation of the nucleotide analogue. ZDV-TP is a weak inhibitor of the cellular …

Zidovudine tablets are contraindicated in patients who have had potentially life-threatening allergic reactions (e.g., anaphylaxis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome) to any of the components of the formulations. action when the virus enters the host cell. The virus needs reverse transcriptase to multiply in the body. Zidovudine is used in combination with other antiretroviral drugs to slow progression of the disease and reduce the risk of opportunistic infections (AIDS-related infections). Zidovudine does not cure AIDS or kill the virus. There is a permanent risk of transmitting HIV either through

RETROVIR (zidovudine) has been associated with hematologic toxicity including 6 neutropenia and severe anemia, particularly in patients with advanced HIV-1 disease The dependence of the effect of hydroxyurea on mutations in the HIV RT supports the hypothesis that the mechanism of action of hydroxyurea is related to nucleoside metabolism rather than to its effects on the number of available target cells or other mechanisms .

for undergraduate health science students such as health officer, nursing, midwifery and Understand pharmacodynamics like mechanism of drug action, dose relation ship and pharmacokinetics like absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of drugs. 4. Understand theoritical pharmacokinetics like half-life, order of kinetics, steady state plasma concentration. 5. Understand … Pharmacodynamic Properties. Zidovudine is a synthetic analog of the naturally-occurring nucleoside thymidine and has no intrinsic anti-HIV activity; it must first be converted intracellularly to its triphosphate form by the action of thymidylate kinase and non-specific kinases.

Zidovudine tablets are contraindicated in patients who have had potentially life-threatening allergic reactions (e.g., anaphylaxis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome) to any of the components of the formulations. Pharmacology/Mechanism of Action • Cytidine analogue, intracellular triphosphorylation to active form with preferential activity in resting cell • Predominant mechanism of action is DNA chain termination via absence of 3'-hydroxyl group to inhibit HIV reverse transcription • Competes with natural nucleoside substrate for binding to active site of reverse transcriptase Activity In vitro

ZIDOVUDINE SPERLING HIV CD4 Receptor Site of action for reverse transcriptase inhibitors Mature Virion Budding Particle 0 Os GenomicRNA /’_ Processing, and ReverseTranscriptasea Host 7_ Caution if taken concomitantly with barbiturates, anticoagulants, zidovudine, amoxicillin (Medsafe -last updated Oct 2008) Side Effects Vomiting, fever, rash, neutropoenia, leucopoenia, thrombocytopenia.

Zidovudine (ZDV), also known as azidothymidine (AZT), is an antiretroviral medication used to prevent and treat HIV/AIDS. It is generally recommended for use with other antiretrovirals. [2] It may be used to prevent mother-to-child spread during birth or after a needlestick injury or other potential exposure. [2] Mechanism of action (300mg, as abacavir sulfate) is a new formulation of Antiviral Nucleoside analogue reverse three nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase in- transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs)

Pharmacodynamic Properties. Zidovudine is a synthetic analog of the naturally-occurring nucleoside thymidine and has no intrinsic anti-HIV activity; it must first be converted intracellularly to its triphosphate form by the action of thymidylate kinase and non-specific kinases. Zidovudine crosses the placenta and is secreted in breast milk. Mechanism of Action The triphosphate metabolites act by two mechanisms: (i) they compete with natural

AZT, in full azidothymidine, also called zidovudine, drug used to delay development of AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) in patients infected with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus). Zidovudine, a component of abacavir, lamivudine and zidovudine tablets, has been associated with hematologic toxicity, including neutropenia and severe anemia, particularly in patients with advanced Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1) disease [see

Lamivudine C8H11N3O3S PubChem

zidovudine mechanism of action pdf

HIGHLIGHTS OF PRESCRIBING INFORMATION ABACAVIR. • Trizivir : zidovudine + lamivudine + abacavir Manufacturer ViiV Healthcare ULC Pharmacology/Mechanism of Action • Thymidine analogue, intracellular triphosphorylation to active form with preferential activity in active cells • Causes viral DNA chain termination via absence of 3'-hydroxyl group (replaced by azido group) to inhibit HIV reverse transcription • Competes with natural, Mechanism of Action . Dolutegravir inhibits HIV integrase by binding to the integrase active site and blocking the strand transfer step of retroviral deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) integration which is essential for the HIV replication cycle. Strand transfer biochemical assays using purified HIV1 - integrase and p-processed substrate DNA resulted in IC50 values of 2.7 nM and 12.6 re nM. In vitro.

Zidovudine Wiki Everipedia. Mechanism of Action Zidovudine is a synthetic nucleoside analogue. Intracellularly, zidovudine is phosphorylated to its active 5′-triphosphate metabolite, zidovudine triphosphate (ZDV-TP)., MID 38 Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors • Second class of antiretroviral agents developed • Mechanism of action: - NNRTI’s inhibit the HIV reverse transcriptase by binding a.

Zidovudine and Lamivudine for HIV Infection Journals

zidovudine mechanism of action pdf

NIH Public Access Brian D. Herman Ph.D. Jessica RADZIO. List Of Antidepressants Pdf best choice! 100% Secure and Anonymous. Low Prices, 24/7 online support, available with World Wide Delivery. Effective treatment for erectile dysfunction regardless of the cause or duration of the problem or the age of the patient List Of Antidepressants Pdf https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talk%3AZidovudine Mechanism of Action: Lamivudine: Lamivudine is a synthetic nucleoside analogue. Intracellularly, lamivudine is phosphorylated to its active 5′-triphosphate metabolite, lamivudine triphosphate (L-TP)..

zidovudine mechanism of action pdf


The second mechanism that is of concern when discussing nrtis in- volves key mutations that essentially work to undo the action of these drugs, even if they do manage to … The dependence of the effect of hydroxyurea on mutations in the HIV RT supports the hypothesis that the mechanism of action of hydroxyurea is related to nucleoside metabolism rather than to its effects on the number of available target cells or other mechanisms .

Page 1 of 22 HIGHLIGHTS OF PRESCRIBING INFORMATION These highlights do not include all the information needed to use LAMIVUDINE AND ZIDOVUDINE TABLETS safely and effectively. Pharmacodynamic Properties. Zidovudine is a synthetic analog of the naturally-occurring nucleoside thymidine and has no intrinsic anti-HIV activity; it must first be converted intracellularly to its triphosphate form by the action of thymidylate kinase and non-specific kinases.

The PowerPoint PPT presentation: "Antiretroviral Therapy: Drugs, Mechanism of Action, Adverse Effects" is the property of its rightful owner. Do you have PowerPoint slides to share? If so, share your PPT presentation slides online with PowerShow.com. Zidovudine (ZDV) and nevirapine (NVP) target the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) by distinct mechanisms of action and belong to the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) classes, respectively.

RETROVIR (zidovudine) has been associated with hematologic toxicity including 6 neutropenia and severe anemia, particularly in patients with advanced HIV-1 disease Mechanism of action (300mg, as abacavir sulfate) is a new formulation of Antiviral Nucleoside analogue reverse three nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase in- transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs)

(abacavir, lamivudine and zidovudine tablets) In clinical trials approximately 5% of subjects who received abacavir sulfate developed a hypersensitivity reaction, which in rare cases has proved fatal. Zidovudine EP III Mechanism Of Action: Rapid and nearly complete absorption from the gastrointestinal tract following oral administration; however, because of first-pass metabolism, systemic bioavailability of zidovudine capsules and solution is approximately 65% (range, 52 to 75%).

for undergraduate health science students such as health officer, nursing, midwifery and Understand pharmacodynamics like mechanism of drug action, dose relation ship and pharmacokinetics like absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of drugs. 4. Understand theoritical pharmacokinetics like half-life, order of kinetics, steady state plasma concentration. 5. Understand … Read "Inhibition of HIV-1 replication by hydroxychloroquine: mechanism of action and comparison with zidovudine, Clinical Therapeutics" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.

11/08/2011 · Mechanism of Action: Zidovudine is a synthetic nucleoside analogue. Intracellularly, zidovudine is phosphorylated to its active 5′-triphosphate metabolite, zidovudine triphosphate (ZDV-TP). The principal mode of action of ZDV-TP is inhibition of reverse transcriptase (RT) via DNA chain termination after incorporation of the nucleotide analogue. ZDV-TP is a weak inhibitor of the cellular … Zidovudine is a nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) that is widely used in the antiretroviral treatment of patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

Although a promising new mechanism of action, insufficient antiviral activity precluded the development beyond early phase clinical trials (Smith et al. 2007). The context of the HIV-1 life cycle, the final class of approved ARVs, is the HIV-1 PIs. Zidovudine (azidothymidine, AZT) is a thymidine analogue. Within the virus-infected cell, the 3′-azido group is used by retroviral reverse transcriptase and incorporated into DNA transcription, preventing viral …

The PowerPoint PPT presentation: "Antiretroviral Therapy: Drugs, Mechanism of Action, Adverse Effects" is the property of its rightful owner. Do you have PowerPoint slides to share? If so, share your PPT presentation slides online with PowerShow.com. Zidovudine is the most effective drug for preventing vertical transmission of HIV. Being a nucleoside analogue, it permeates transplacental barrier and is rapidly incorporated into DNA of placenta tissues ( …

Zidovudine ipfs.io

zidovudine mechanism of action pdf

Zidovudine Wikipedia. PDF Zidovudine was the first agent approved for treatment of HIV disease, and since its widespread availability in 1987, the pharmacokinetic disposition and clinical effects of ZDV have been, Mechanism of Action . Acyclovir. An acyclic guanosine derivative Phosphorylated by . viral thymidine kinase. Di-and tri-phosphorylated by host . cellular kinases. Inhibits viral DNA synthesis by: 1) competing with dGTP for viral DNA polymerase 2) chain termination. Activity against viruses Herpes simplex I – most sensitive HSV II > VZV = EBV CMV not affected. Acyclovir Oral, IV, and Topical.

Concentration-Effect Incidence and Mechanism of

RPA Newborn Care Drug Database Sydney Local Health District. Principles of Drug action – Penicillin, Chloroquine, Zidovudine. Mechanisms of drug action. Non receptor mediated & Receptor mediated . Non receptor mediated actions. 1. Physical action: - Mass of drug - Ispaghula husk - Adsorptive property -char coal - Osmotic activity- Magnesium sulfate - Radio activity- I . 131 - Oxidising property –KMnO. 4. 2. Chemical action. Antacids neutralise, Pharmacology/Mechanism of Action • Cytidine analogue, intracellular triphosphorylation to active form with preferential activity in resting cell • Predominant mechanism of action is DNA chain termination via absence of 3'-hydroxyl group to inhibit HIV reverse transcription • Competes with natural nucleoside substrate for binding to active site of reverse transcriptase Activity In vitro.

Zidovudine crosses the placenta and is secreted in breast milk. Mechanism of Action The triphosphate metabolites act by two mechanisms: (i) they compete with natural Introduction. There is a risk of anaemia among HIV-infected children on antiretroviral therapy (ART) containing zidovudine (ZDV) recommended in first-line regimens in the WHO guidelines.

Principles of Drug action – Penicillin, Chloroquine, Zidovudine. Mechanisms of drug action. Non receptor mediated & Receptor mediated . Non receptor mediated actions. 1. Physical action: - Mass of drug - Ispaghula husk - Adsorptive property -char coal - Osmotic activity- Magnesium sulfate - Radio activity- I . 131 - Oxidising property –KMnO. 4. 2. Chemical action. Antacids neutralise Mechanism of action. AZT in oral, injectable, and suppository form . AZT is a thymidine analogue. AZT works by selectively inhibiting HIV's reverse transcriptase, the enzyme that the virus uses to make a DNA copy of its RNA. Reverse transcription is necessary for production of HIV's double-stranded DNA, which would be subsequently integrated into the genetic material of the infected cell

Mechanism of Action . Acyclovir. An acyclic guanosine derivative Phosphorylated by . viral thymidine kinase. Di-and tri-phosphorylated by host . cellular kinases. Inhibits viral DNA synthesis by: 1) competing with dGTP for viral DNA polymerase 2) chain termination. Activity against viruses Herpes simplex I – most sensitive HSV II > VZV = EBV CMV not affected. Acyclovir Oral, IV, and Topical Pharmacology/Mechanism of Action • Cytidine analogue, intracellular triphosphorylation to active form with preferential activity in resting cell • Predominant mechanism of action is DNA chain termination via absence of 3'-hydroxyl group to inhibit HIV reverse transcription • Competes with natural nucleoside substrate for binding to active site of reverse transcriptase Activity In vitro

Therefore, there is a possibility that the mechanism of action of IFN and AZT is by enhancing the CTL response against the neoplastic and/or normal HTLV-I + lymphocytes. Although the combination of IFN and AZT clearly improves the outcome of ATLL patients, a search for new therapies or modifications of previous schedules to cure this disease is needed. Mechanism of Action Zidovudine is a synthetic nucleoside analogue. Intracellularly, zidovudine is phosphorylated to its active 5′-triphosphate metabolite, zidovudine triphosphate (ZDV-TP).

Mechanism of Action ①Competitive inhibition of HIV‐1 reverse HIV‐1. Zidovudine • Azidothymidine AZT • Deoxythymidine analog • anti‐HIV‐1 and HIV‐2 • Well absorbed from the gut and distributed to most body tissues and fluids, including the cerebrospinal fluid. • Eliminated primarily by renal excretion following glucuronidation in the liver. • Decreases the rate of ZIDOVUDINE - zidovudine solution Boca Pharmacal, LLC-----HIGHLIGHTS OF PRESCRIBING INFORMATION These highlights do not include all the information needed to use Zidovudine …

Mechanism of action AZT is a thymidine analogue. AZT works by selectively inhibiting HIV's reverse transcriptase , the enzyme that the virus uses to make a DNA copy of its RNA . Zidovudine (n.) 1. A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains.

Mechanism of action. AZT in oral, injectable, and suppository form . AZT is a thymidine analogue. AZT works by selectively inhibiting HIV's reverse transcriptase, the enzyme that the virus uses to make a DNA copy of its RNA. Reverse transcription is necessary for production of HIV's double-stranded DNA, which would be subsequently integrated into the genetic material of the infected cell Its mechanism of action is unknown, but is thought to be through peripheral inhibition of cyclooxygenases and subsequent prostaglandin synthetase inhibition. Ibuprofen has shown anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity in both animal and human studies.

Gu Z, Wainberg MA, Nguyen-Ba N, L'Heureux L, De Muys JM, Bowlin TL & Rando RF (1999) Mechanism of action and in vitro activity of 1′,3′-dioxolanylpurine nucleoside analogues against sensitive and drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variants. 11/08/2011 · Mechanism of Action: Zidovudine is a synthetic nucleoside analogue. Intracellularly, zidovudine is phosphorylated to its active 5′-triphosphate metabolite, zidovudine triphosphate (ZDV-TP). The principal mode of action of ZDV-TP is inhibition of reverse transcriptase (RT) via DNA chain termination after incorporation of the nucleotide analogue. ZDV-TP is a weak inhibitor of the cellular …

MID 38 Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors • Second class of antiretroviral agents developed • Mechanism of action: - NNRTI’s inhibit the HIV reverse transcriptase by binding a Lamivudine/zidovudine, sold under the brand name Combivir among others, is a medication used to treat HIV/AIDS. It is a combination of two antiretroviral medications, lamivudine and zidovudine.

Introduction. There is a risk of anaemia among HIV-infected children on antiretroviral therapy (ART) containing zidovudine (ZDV) recommended in first-line regimens in the WHO guidelines. A regimen of oral zidovudine beginning between 14 & 34 weeks of gestation, i.v. zidovudine during labor, and zidovudine syrup to the neonate from birth through 6 weeks of age has been shown to reduce the rate of mother-to-newborn transmission of HIV by up to 23% (Safrin, 2009).

Zidovudine FDA Label Capsule syrup injection (solution). List Of Antidepressants Pdf best choice! 100% Secure and Anonymous. Low Prices, 24/7 online support, available with World Wide Delivery. Effective treatment for erectile dysfunction regardless of the cause or duration of the problem or the age of the patient List Of Antidepressants Pdf, Mechanism of pharmacologic action ZDV and 3TC are nucleoside analog reverse transcrip-tase inhibitors (Fig. 1). Both drugs require phosphor- ylation intracellularly to the triphosphate anabolite for pharmacologic activity. The drug-triphosphate interferes with HIV reverse transcriptase by compet-ing with natural nucleotides for incorporation into the growing HIV DNA chain, and terminating HIV.

Zidovudine FDA Label Capsule syrup injection (solution)

zidovudine mechanism of action pdf

Inhibition of HIV-1 replication by hydroxychloroquine. MID 38 Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors • Second class of antiretroviral agents developed • Mechanism of action: - NNRTI’s inhibit the HIV reverse transcriptase by binding a, action when the virus enters the host cell. The virus needs reverse transcriptase to multiply in the body. Zidovudine is used in combination with other antiretroviral drugs to slow progression of the disease and reduce the risk of opportunistic infections (AIDS-related infections). Zidovudine does not cure AIDS or kill the virus. There is a permanent risk of transmitting HIV either through.

zidovudine mechanism of action pdf

DailyMed ZIDOVUDINE - zidovudine tablet. Introduction. There is a risk of anaemia among HIV-infected children on antiretroviral therapy (ART) containing zidovudine (ZDV) recommended in first-line regimens in the WHO guidelines., Mechanism of action. AZT in oral, injectable, and suppository form . AZT is a thymidine analogue. AZT works by selectively inhibiting HIV's reverse transcriptase, the enzyme that the virus uses to make a DNA copy of its RNA. Reverse transcription is necessary for production of HIV's double-stranded DNA, which would be subsequently integrated into the genetic material of the infected cell.

Zidovudine Retrovir Treatment - National HIV Curriculum

zidovudine mechanism of action pdf

Zidovudine Retrovir Treatment - National HIV Curriculum. • Trizivir : zidovudine + lamivudine + abacavir Manufacturer ViiV Healthcare ULC Pharmacology/Mechanism of Action • Thymidine analogue, intracellular triphosphorylation to active form with preferential activity in active cells • Causes viral DNA chain termination via absence of 3'-hydroxyl group (replaced by azido group) to inhibit HIV reverse transcription • Competes with natural https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lamivudine Mechanism of Action: These drugs competitively inhibit HIV-1 reverse transcriptase & can be incorporated into the growing viral DNA chain to cause DNA chain termination . Each requires intracellular (cytoplasmic) activation as a result of phosphorylation by cellular enzymes to the triphosphate form..

zidovudine mechanism of action pdf


The mechanism of action of lamivudine is as a Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor. The chemical classification of lamivudine is Nucleoside Analog. The chemical classification of lamivudine is Nucleoside Analog. Zidovudine (ZDV), also known as azidothymidine (AZT), is an antiretroviral medication used to prevent and treat HIV/AIDS. It is generally recommended for use with other antiretrovirals.

Zidovudine Mechanism Of Action: Rapid and nearly complete absorption from the gastrointestinal tract following oral administration; however, because of first-pass metabolism, systemic bioavailability of zidovudine capsules and solution is approximately 65% (range, 52 to 75%). Mechanism of action. AZT in oral, injectable, and suppository form . AZT is a thymidine analogue. AZT works by selectively inhibiting HIV's reverse transcriptase, the enzyme that the virus uses to make a DNA copy of its RNA. Reverse transcription is necessary for production of HIV's double-stranded DNA, which would be subsequently integrated into the genetic material of the infected cell

Principles of Drug action – Penicillin, Chloroquine, Zidovudine. Mechanisms of drug action. Non receptor mediated & Receptor mediated . Non receptor mediated actions. 1. Physical action: - Mass of drug - Ispaghula husk - Adsorptive property -char coal - Osmotic activity- Magnesium sulfate - Radio activity- I . 131 - Oxidising property –KMnO. 4. 2. Chemical action. Antacids neutralise Mechanism of action Lamivudine is an analogue of cytidine . It can inhibit both types (1 and 2) of HIV reverse transcriptase and also the reverse transcriptase of hepatitis B virus .

Lamivudine and zidovudine tablet is not recommended for patients with creatinine clearance less than 50 mL per min because lamivudine and zidovudine tablet is a fixed-dose combination and the dosage of the individual components cannot be adjusted. AZT, in full azidothymidine, also called zidovudine, drug used to delay development of AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) in patients infected with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus).

action when the virus enters the host cell. The virus needs reverse transcriptase to multiply in the body. Zidovudine is used in combination with other antiretroviral drugs to slow progression of the disease and reduce the risk of opportunistic infections (AIDS-related infections). Zidovudine does not cure AIDS or kill the virus. There is a permanent risk of transmitting HIV either through Mechanism of action. AZT in oral, injectable, and suppository form . AZT is a thymidine analogue. AZT works by selectively inhibiting HIV's reverse transcriptase, the enzyme that the virus uses to make a DNA copy of its RNA. Reverse transcription is necessary for production of HIV's double-stranded DNA, which would be subsequently integrated into the genetic material of the infected cell

BIOP211 – Pharmacology Tutorial Session 05: Drugs affecting Micro-organisms 5.1 Discuss these pharmaceutical medications Penicillins and cephalosporins metronidazole Anti-fungals used systemically Anti-retrovirals And your answer should cover the following (i) Examples and Indications (ii) Mechanism of action (must state if microbiostatic or microbicidal for bacterial and fungal infections action when the virus enters the host cell. The virus needs reverse transcriptase to multiply in the body. Zidovudine is used in combination with other antiretroviral drugs to slow progression of the disease and reduce the risk of opportunistic infections (AIDS-related infections). Zidovudine does not cure AIDS or kill the virus. There is a permanent risk of transmitting HIV either through

Pharmacology/Mechanism of Action • Cytidine analogue, intracellular triphosphorylation to active form with preferential activity in resting cell • Predominant mechanism of action is DNA chain termination via absence of 3'-hydroxyl group to inhibit HIV reverse transcription • Competes with natural nucleoside substrate for binding to active site of reverse transcriptase Activity In vitro Mechanism of Action and Resistance: Abacavir, lamivudine and zidovudine are all nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Abacavir is a selective antiretroviral agent against HIV-1 and HIV-2, including HIV-1 isolates that are resistant to zidovudine, lamivudine, zalcitabine, didanosine or nevirapine. Zidovudine is an inhibitor of the replication of some retroviruses including HIV

Mechanism of action AZT is a thymidine analogue. AZT works by selectively inhibiting HIV's reverse transcriptase , the enzyme that the virus uses to make a DNA copy of its RNA . Caution if taken concomitantly with barbiturates, anticoagulants, zidovudine, amoxicillin (Medsafe -last updated Oct 2008) Side Effects Vomiting, fever, rash, neutropoenia, leucopoenia, thrombocytopenia.

Its mechanism of action is unknown, but is thought to be through peripheral inhibition of cyclooxygenases and subsequent prostaglandin synthetase inhibition. Ibuprofen has shown anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity in both animal and human studies. Zidovudine (ZDV), also known as azidothymidine (AZT), is an antiretroviral medication used to prevent and treat HIV/AIDS. It is generally recommended for use with other antiretrovirals. [2] It may be used to prevent mother-to-child spread during birth or after a needlestick injury or other potential exposure. [2]

Drug-Induced Hepatotoxicity: A Review Aashish Pandit, Tarun Sachdeva and Pallavi Bafna ABSTRACT Liver is the principle organ for maintaining the body’s internal environment. There is currently no way to reimburse for the absence of liver function. Its major influence is on the important cause of liver injury. More than 900 drugs, toxins, and herbs have been reported to cause liver injury Gu Z, Wainberg MA, Nguyen-Ba N, L'Heureux L, De Muys JM, Bowlin TL & Rando RF (1999) Mechanism of action and in vitro activity of 1′,3′-dioxolanylpurine nucleoside analogues against sensitive and drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variants.